Magnetic Houses Essay

Magnet Properties of Solids

Magnet Properties

Permanent magnetic (with unpaired electron) Elements Non-magnetic or perhaps diamagnetic (electrons all matched up)

Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic Antiferromagnetic Ferrimagnetic

Magnetic Behavior

M = ОјH B = Ој0H + Ој0M

Induction generated Inauguration ? introduction generated by the field by sample

W: magnetic flux density Ој: permittivity (m0: free space) H: magnet field M: Magnetization

П‡ = M/H

П‡: permanent magnetic susceptibility

W = μ0H + μ0Hχ B sama dengan μ0H (1 + χ) = μH μ0 (1 + χ) = μ (1 & χ) = μ as well as μ0 = μr μr: relative permittivity

Behavior of Substances within a Magnetic Field

Magnetic tendencies may be known by the principles of П‡ and Ој and by their particular temperature and field dependence 1 . Confident vs . unfavorable value: just diamagnetic supplies show unfavorable П‡ installment payments on your Absolute benefit: ferromagnetic components show large positive value 3. Heat dependence: diamagnetism is not really temp. dependence, antiferromagentic components increase with increasing temperature, and para- and ferromagnetic materials lower with increasing temp some. Field dependence: only ferro- and antiferromagnetic materials display field dependence

Effect of Temp

Paramagnetic element: obey Curie Law

C: Curie regular T: temperatures

There is no spontaneous interaction between adjacent unpaired electrons. With increasing temp the positioning is more hard and П‡ decreases.

Paramagnetic substance show some permanent magnet ordering (ferro- or antiferro): Curie-Weiss Law П‡= C О¤-Оё Оё: Weiss regular

There is some spontaneous connection between nearby spins. An improved fit for the high temperature patterns in the paramagnetic region is definitely provided by Curie-Weiss Law (with additional Weiss constant).

Effect of Temperature

Paramagnetic: Curie regulation; T decrease, c increase (alignment easier) Robert John Lancashire (wwwchem. uwimona. edu. jm)

Tc: ferromagnetic Curie temperature (below Tc, sample is ferromagnetic) TN: NГ©el Temperature (below TN, test is antiferromagnetic)

Magnetic Moments

Magnetic instant (Ој): corelates directly to the number of unpaired bad particals

Susceptibility and magnetic instant can be determined experimentally using a Guoy Balance:

For paramagnetic substance, unpaired bad particals are drawn by the permanent magnet field and an noticeable increase in mass of the test occurs when the field is start

Electron Spin Magnet Moment

Magnet properties of unpaired electrons arise coming from electron " spin " and electron orbital action Bohr magneton (BM): An organic constant which usually arises inside the treatment of magnetic effects. The magnetic instant is usually expressed as a multiple of the Bohr magneton. BM = right 4ПЂmc at the: electron demand h: Planck's constant m: electron mass c: speed of light

Permanent magnet moments of single electron

Ојs sama dengan gв€љs(s+1) Ојs = 1 . 73 BM Ојs sama dengan gв€љS(S+1)

g: gyromagnetic rate ~2 (for electron " spin " magnetic moment) s: rotate quantum quantity S: sum of spin quantum amount

> you unpaired electron

Electron-Orbit Magnet Moment

The motion of your electron surrounding the nucleus might in some supplies, give rise to a great orbital moment, which plays a role in the overall magnetic moment ОјS+L = [4S(S+1) + L(L+1)]ВЅ L: orbital angular impetus quantum number

Simplified procedure: a single unpaired electron is defined equal to you BM Ој = gS

Mechanisms of Magnetic Purchasing

The natural alignment of magnetic dipoles in ferro / antiferromagnetic states require some positive energy of interaction between neighboring rotates. The origin on this coupling can be quantum mechanical. Antiferromagnetism in NiO: superexchange

• The unpaired electrons in these eg orbitals couple with electrons in the g orbitals from the O2- ions. • g orbitals of the O2- ions contain two electron every single, which are paired antiparallel.

Origins of Para- and Ferromagnetism in Metals

Pauli Paramagnetism (paramagnetism of free electrons) Ferromagnetism

Magnetic Materials-Metal and Alloys

Five changeover metals: Crystal reports, Mn, Ideologia,...


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